tv calibration glossary &
video calibration glossary

Frequently when I'm doing a HDTV calibration I get questions about the process. The below tv calibration glossary is a useful summary. It's been consolidated from many excellent web sources.

Below CIE graph shows examples of the 'just noticable differences' which are perceptiable to the human eye/brain.

start tv calibration glossary

    3:2 Pulldown - Is a method for transferring 24-frame/second film images to 60-field/second video.  Film frames are transferred to three video fields followed by two video fields for the next frame.  This sequence is repeated as follows 3, 2, 3, 2, 3, 2....  

480i - Is the resolution of standard definition television.  This can either be a 16:9 format or 4:3 format.  

480p - Is a lower resolution HDTV format or the output from a progressive DVD player.  This can either be a 16:9 or 4:3 format.  

720p - Is a progressive HDTV format.  This is a 16:9 aspect ratio (rectangular) format.  

1080i - Is an interlaced HDTV format.  This is a 16:9 aspect ratio (rectangular) format.  

4k -Ultra High Definition UHD is a resolution of 3840 pixels × 2160 lines (8.3 megapixels aspect ratio 16:9) and is targeted towards consumer television. UHD has twice the horizontal and vertical resolution of the 108p HDTV format, with four times as many pixels overall

 


AC-3 - The digital audio format used for Digital TV (DTV) broadcasts in the United States.

Adobe RGB - A Color Space used primarily in digital photography applications and supported in HDTVs with the 1.4 version of the HDMI specification

 

Adobe YYCC601 - A Color Space used primarily in digital photography applications and supported in HDTVs with the 1.4 version of the HDMI specification.

 

Analog - Analog systems represent data as a series of variations in some measurable, physical quantity, such as voltage or waveform. (See also Digital)

 

ARC – See Audio Return Channel

 

Aspect Ratio - The ratio of screen width to screen height. For television monitors it is either 4:3 (“standard”) or 16:9 (“widescreen”).NTSC analog TV systems use a 4:3 aspect ratio, while ATSC uses the wider 16:9 aspect ratio. Movie theaters use a number of different aspect ratios, some even wider than 16:9.

 

ATC - Authorized Testing Center. In order to verify compliance with the HDMI technical specification, components are tested in ATCs operated by HDMI Licensing, LLC. Products are tested according to a Compliance Test Specification (CTS). ATCs are located in Europe, Asia, and North America.

 

ATSC - Advanced Television System Committee technical standard. The digital replacement for the legacy NTSC broadcast standard.

 

Audio Return Channel - Allows an HDMI-connected TV to send an audio signal “upstream” to an AV receiver or Home Theater in a Box when the TV is the source of the audio (such as an internal tuner of an internal DVD/Blu-ray player), eliminating the need for a separate S/PDIF cable. An optional HDMI feature that must be supported by both devices.

 

A/D - Is an analog signal to digital signal converter.  This is used to transform a signal which is based on a continuous voltage and/or frequency to ones and zeros.  

 

Aliasing - Is when a wider spaced line pattern is created from a finer line pattern.  This is caused by improper filtering and/or insufficient resolution of the display relative to the source.  

 

Artifacts - Are false information that can be present in an image.  They can appear as spots, patterns, lines, jagged edges or any other localized imperfection. These can be caused by signal processing, electrical noise or optical imperfections.  

 

ATSC - Is the name given to the 8-VSB broadcast standard for HDTV in the USA.  It is also an abbreviation for the "Advanced Television Systems Committee" that established the standard.   The digital standard which replaced the legacy NTSC standard,

 

Blu-Ray (BD) - Is a HDTV recorded video format with improved audio and video 

Bit depth – see Color Depth

BNC Connector - Is an abbreviation for Bayonet Neill Concelman connector.  This connector has a pin in the center that is connected to the wire in the cable and a metal tube connected to the cable shield. An outer ring on the male connector locks it to any female connector.  These are typically found in higher quality products where a true 75 ohm connection is desired.  This is the best analog connector type to use with video.  

Brightness - Is an adjustment in the user menu for setting the intensity of black.  When brightness is set correctly the lowest level signal above black should be barely visible.  

Burn-In - Is an artifact that is caused by having an image on a screen too long.  Plasma and CRT have the biggest problem with this and the damage is usually permanent on these devices.  Other technologies can suffer a similar problem with image retention, but it is not normally permanent.

 

 

CEC-  CEC (Consumer Electronics Control) capability allows HDMI devices to control each other when necessary and allows the user to operate multiple devices with one remote control handset

CIE - The International Commission on Illumination (Commission Internationale de l'E'clairage), this is an international organization concerned with color and color measurement.  The CIE established an international standard for primary colors in 1931.  This standard allows all colors to be defined as a combination of three primary colors (red, green, blue).  

CRT - Is an abbreviation for cathode ray tube display.  A CRT uses an electron beam to excite phosphorus to emit light to generate the image.  

 Chromatic Aberration - Is a distortion of the picture that is caused by the light not being focused properly.  This is caused by the lens system spreading the light like a rainbow.  This is only found in displays the use lenses to project the image.  Calibration cannot influence this, but display selection can.  Typically more expensive display devices use higher quality lenses to reduce this effect.  

Chroma Delay - Is a video artifact that appears as the color information shifted to the left or right of the black and white.  This is caused by timing errors in the signals.

Color - Is an adjustment in the user menu for setting the intensity of colors.  When color is set correctly the intensity of  blue is the same as its intensity in white.  

Color Analyzer - Is a device that can measure the color of light.  

Color Bars - Are a standard test pattern with white, yellow, cyan, green, magenta, red and blue bars that are used to make the color calibration on a display device.  

Color Decoder - How color is translated from an input signal into what is displayed on your screen.  Default factory settings for this frequently result in skin tones that are too red (red push).  This is one of the key areas calibration is intended to improve.


Color Depth - A measurement of the number of bits used to represent the color of a single pixel. Greater color depth gives a larger number of distinct colors, i.e. millions or billions of colors, allowing for smoother color gradients. (See also: Deep Color)

Color Gamut – see Color Space

Color Model – see Color Space

Color Sampling – 4:4:4 has no color sampling Adobe PhotoShop, , 4:2:2 is used by most professional formats, Digital Betacam, DVCPRO50, DVCPRO-HD, MPEG-IMX,  4:2:0 used by PAL, DV, DVD, HDV, AVC-HD, XDCAM-HD  It’s common practice to average the pixels together to cut bandwidth. If you see blocky color edges in video, this is why.

Color Space - DTVs and other digital devices are not designed to display the entire available spectrum of colors discernible to the human eye, but rely instead on a subset of these colors known as a color space, color model, or color gamut. The traditional color space for TVs has been the RGB model, but newer sets are being designed to accommodate the broader x,y,Color  model, which can display more of the visible spectrum. Digital cameras also frequently use a color model that is wider than RGB, such as Adobe YYCC601.

 Color Wheel - Is a disk that is subdivided axially into multiple segments.  Each segment is typically red, blue, green or white.  A color wheel is used in combination with an LCoS or DLP device to reduce the cost of implementation.   

Component Video - Are three cables for transmitting an analog video signal.  This type of connection is capable of carrying the complete resolution of HDTV and NTSC.

Composite Video - Is a single cable for transmitting an analog video signal.  The resolution of this connection is limited in its ability to transmit detailed color information for NTSC compatible images.  

Contrast or Picture - Is the user mode setting that sets the intensity of white.  When this is set correctly your display will not shift in color, gamma or geometry at high levels.  Too high of contrast levels can also cause burn-in to be a greater problem.  

Contrast Ratio (ANSI) - Is the ratio of light output from white sections and dark sections of a display with a checkerboard like pattern.  This is typically much lower than the on/off contrast ratio.  

Contrast Ratio (On/Off) - Is the ratio of light output when the screen is white versus when it is black.  These measurements are frequently exaggerated by manufacturers making published figures less useful.  

 

Color Temperature - Is a user menu setting that refers to the color of gray.  6500K is the target color temperature, but most displays do not come properly calibrated to match it.  Settings can also be referred to as cool, warm or neutral.  Neutral or warm are most likely to be closest to D65.  

 

D65 - Is the standard point (x=0.3127, y=0.329) in perceptual color space used to define the standard for gray for NTSC and HDTV video.  Your display will not accurately display the image if it does not closely match D65 when no color is present in the image.  This is due to the way an image is created by painting colors on top of the base gray black & white image.  The D65 image in essence is the color of the canvas that your TV uses to display a picture.  The closer an image is to gray the more it will be in error if your display is not calibrated to D65.  A quality display calibration must include verification or calibration that a display adheres to the D65 standard.

De-interlace - Is an educated guess that is made to video interlaced signals to reconstruct the missing information.  

Delta C  - Are relative errors in color measurements.  

Delta E  - Are relative errors in color measurements.  
 

DDC- The Display Data Channel, one of the channels in an HDMI connection. DDC allows devices to assess each others’ capabilities and adjust themselves accordingly. For example, a DVD player can discover the maximum resolution of the monitor it’s connected to by reading the monitor’s EDID ROM chip, and optimize its signal output to match that monitor’s display capabilities. The standard was created by the Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA).

 

Deep Color™ - The expanded bandwidth of HDMI 1.3 is allowing manufacturers to design displays with much greater Color Depth. These new “Deep Color” monitors will be capable of rendering many more distinct hues than current displays – up to trillions of colors rather than thousands or millions. (See also: Color Depth; Color Banding)

Digital - Digital systems represent data in binary form, encoding it as a series of zeroes and ones. (See also: Analog)

DisplayPort is a digital display interface developed by the Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA). The interface is primarily used to connect a video source to a display device such as a computer monitor, though it can also be used to carry audio, USB, and other forms of data.. VESA designed it to replace VGADVI, and FPD-Link. DisplayPort is backward compatible with VGA and DVI through the use of adapters.

D-ILA - Is an abbreviation for Direct-drive Image Light Amplifier which is JVC's proprietary LCoS technology.  

D-Theater - Is an encrypted prerecorded format that is found on D-VHS.  This format offers exceptional quality for prerecorded content.  

D-VHS - Is a digital version of VHS that is more like a digital tape backup using a VHS tape form factor.  

Display Device - Is anything that can be used to view a video or film.  This would include an

ordinary CRT television to a front projector.  

Direct View - Is a type of display that does not use a lens system to create an image.  CRT, LCD and plasma displays are common types of these.  

DLP - Is an abbreviation for digital light processing which is Texas Instrument's proprietary technology.  This technology uses a large number of very small mirrors that represent pixels.  These mirrors move rapidly on and off to change to intensity of each pixel.  The color of each pixel can be based on an individual DLP for each color primary or a single DLP device that uses a color wheel to change the color.  

DVD - Is an abbreviation for Digital Video/Versatile Disc and was launched by The Digital Entertainment Group.  

DVI - Digital Visual Interface (DVI) is a video display interface developed by the Digital Display Working Group (DDWG). The digital interface is used to connect a video source, such as a display controller to a display device. It was developed with the intention of creating an industry standard for the transfer of digital video content.

The interface is designed to transmit uncompressed digital video and can be configured to support multiple modes such as DVI-D (digital only), DVI-A (analog only), or DVI-I (digital and analog). Featuring support for analog connections, the DVI specification is compatible with the VGA interface. This compatibility, along with other advantages, led to its widespread acceptance over competing digital display standards Plug and Display (P&D) and Digital Flat Panel (DFP). Although DVI is predominantly associated with computers, it is sometimes used in other consumer electronics such as television setsvideo game consoles]and DVD players.

DVI – Digital visual interface Is a single cable that is used to carry digital video data.  DVI can have picture degradation from poor connections or cables because it does not include error correction or detection.

 

DVR - digital video recorder.  This is the same thing as a PVR.  

 

EDID - Extended display identification data (EDID) is a data structure provided by a digital display to describe its capabilities to a video source (e.g. graphics card or set-top box)

Extended Color Gamut - See x,c,Color

 

Firewire - Is another name for IEEE-1394.  

Front Projector - Is a display type that uses a lens to project on a screen.  This is the type of display device that professional theaters use.  Home theaters are based on CRT, DLP, LCD and LCoS implementations instead of the film that most theaters use.  

 

Gamma -  Is a measurement of the how the image brightness changes with the input signal level.

Geometry - Is how square the image is.  Some display types liked plasma and LCD panels do not have problems with this.  Direct view CRT and rear projection sets frequently have problems that can be improved with calibration.  

Grayscale or Gray Scale - Is the color of gray over different intensity levels.  Calibration of this requires an accurate color measurement tool.  These include optical comparators, spectraradiometers and color analyzers.  

 

HD-DVD - Is a high definition DVD player with improved audio.  

HDCP – High bandwidth digital content protection Is an encryption technique used to protect video content.  This feature is required to ensure future compatibility with HDTV sources (cable, satellite, HD-DVD, Blu-Ray).  

HDMI – High definition multimedia interface Is a single cable that is used to carry digital audio and video data.  The HDMI connector can have problems due to cable stress on the connector.  

 


HDMI Ethernet Channel - An optional HDMI feature that adds high-speed networking capabilities to an HDMI link, equivalent to a 100 MB Ethernet connection. Connected devices can share an Internet connection or take advantage of other networking capabilities. Both sending and receiving devices must support the feature, and the connection must be made with a conforming cable, either Standard HDMI with Ethernet or High Speed HDMI with Ethernet.

HDMI Micro Connector - The smallest HDMI connector type, similar in size to a Micro USB connector.

 

HDMI Repeater - A device that both receives and sends HDMI signals, such as an AV receiver. A/V receivers are considered HDMI repeaters.

 

HDMI Sink - A device that receives an HDMI signal, such as an HDTV.

 

HDMI Source - A device that sends an HDMI signal, such as a DVD player or Set-top box.

 

HDTV - High Definition Television. A widescreen television capable of displaying a 720p signal or better.

 

HEC - See HDMI Ethernet Channel.

 

High Speed HDMI Cable - High Speed HDMI cables are tested to a more rigorous performance standard, aimed at meeting the needs of high-end home theater systems. It is performance tested to 340 MHz, and can reliably transmit a 1080p signal (and more) up to 7.5 meters. High Speed HDMI Cables are referred to as Category 2 cables in the HDMI specification. (See also:Standard HDMI Cable).

 

High Speed HDMI Cable with Ethernet - A High Speed HDMI Cable that also supports HDMI Ethernet Channel functionality, providing a channel for a 100 MB/sec Ethernet link between connected devices.

 

HTPC - Home theater personal computer.  These computers are used in conjunction with a display to project film/video images as well as allowing the display to act as a large monitor.  Differences in computer and video standards cause problems with HTPC's having equivalent picture quality to the best video sources.  HTPC's can also be less friendly to use and may periodically glitch.  

 

Hue: One of the 3 dimensions of color. Hue is the property that distinguishes one color from another. A red whose hue is inaccurate will take on a purplish or orangish appearance. Hue is measured by the angle the color appears on the CIE chart from the reference white point. So as hue changes a color’ moves around or rotates about the white point.

 

IEC - The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC; in FrenchCommission électrotechnique internationale) is a non-profit, non-governmental international standards organization that prepares and publishes International Standards for all electricalelectronic and related technologies – collectively known as "electrotechnology"

 

IEEE-1394 - Is a single thin cable that is used to transmit video and audio digitally.  IEEE-1394 is a bidirectional communication that allows remote control of connected devices.  This type of connection frequently works the best, but many display devices do not have it and some devices may not be supported by those that do  

 

Image Artifacts - Are defects in the image that can be caused by the display type or image processing.  

Image Retention - Is similar to burn-in and is caused by displaying the same image on a screen too long.  LCoS and LCD can suffer from this, but it does not tend to be permanent.  

Interlaced Display - Is a display that refreshes half of the screen at a time.  A CRT display is an interlaced display.  

Inverse Telecine - Is a process that can be applied to a video source that can recreate the individual film frames if the source used what is referred to as telecine or 3-2 pulldown process to create the interlaced image.  The inverse telecine can be perfect, but problems with DVD authoring and inherent problems with the color compression process can cause image artifacts.     ISFccc - Is a certification from the Imaging Science Foundation that may include controls that require an ISF certified technician to adjust.  

ITU - International Telecommunication Union. Defined Rec 709, 2020

 

Judder - Is an image artifact that appears as unsmooth pans.  This is caused by the inverse telecine process normally operating at 60 Hz in the USA.  To fit 24 frames/second into a 60 frame/second system requires alternating the frame sequence 3,2,3,2....  Processing at a multiple of 24 (i.e. 72 Hz) allows each frame to be on the screen for the same amount of time.  

 

LCD - Is an abbreviation for liquid crystal display.  This type of display uses electricity to restrict the light that passes through crystal structure.  

LCoS - Is an abbreviation for liquid crystal on silicon.  This type of display uses electricity to change the amount of light that is reflected from the crystal structure.  

LPCM - Linear pulse-code modulation (LPCM) is a specific type of PCM where the quantization levels are linearly uniform. This is in contrast to PCM encodings where quantization levels vary as a function of amplitude (as with the A-law algorithm or the μ-law algorithm). Though PCM is a more general term, it is often used to describe data encoded as LPCM.

A PCM stream has two basic properties that determine the stream's fidelity to the original analog signal: the sampling rate, which is the number of times per second that samples are taken; and the bit depth, which determines the number of possible digital values that can be used to represent each sample.


Lossless Audio - The latest multi-channel audio codecs are based on lossless compression algorithms with extremely high fidelity, such as Dolby TrueHD and DTS-HD Master Audio

Luminance- One of the 3 dimensions of color. Luminance is the ‘brightness’ or ‘lightness’ of the color. This is the characteristic of color that is not depicted on the CIE chart at all. Thus we use a bar chart to depict a color’s luminance.

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Mini HDMI Connector - A miniature HDMI connector, introduced in HDMI 1.3, designed for use in mobile and handheld products where space is at a premium. The Mini HDMI Connector is functionally compatible with the same number of pins as the larger Standard HDMI Connector and completely compatible as well. The Mini HDMI Connector is referred to as the Type C Connector in the HDMI specification. See also Standard HDMI Connector.

 

MPEG  - A family of audio/video codecs developed by the Motion Picture Experts Group. The majority of TV content – cable, broadcast, and satellite – is currently transmitted in the MPEG-2 format. HD-DVD and Blu-ray Disc players, along with some recently launched satellites, rely on the newer and more powerful MPEG-4 format.

 

Macro Blocking - Is an image artifact that is caused by a combination of MPEG compression, image enhancement and the display performance.  It appears to be a sea of small blocks that dance in an image with similar image intensity or color.  Plasma displays and a DVD player with Faroudja processing is one of the most common combinations that can have this problem.

Motion Adaptive - Is a type of de-interlacing that guesses based on the motion as to what is missing.  

MPEG - Is the Moving Picture Experts Group which is in charge of the development of standards for coded representation of digital audio and video.  Several of the digital compression techniques in common use were developed by this group.

Multipath - Is when a broadcast radio signal reaches the receiver multiple times because it is reflected off of objects and the reflected signal is delayed.  This creates ghosting (double images) in analog broadcasts, but it can confuse digital receivers because it does not which one is the primary data stream.

 

NTSC - Is an abbreviation for National Television System Committee.  This is the standard for television broadcasts in the USA that is currently in use for regular television. The legacy analog television broadcast system used in the US, being replaced by the ATSC digital system.

OTA - Is an abbreviation for off the air.  This is short hand for broadcast television.  

 

Overscan - Is a measurement of what part of the picture that is being sent to the TV that is not being displayed.  Excessive overscan can cause you to miss seeing 5 to 10 percent of the picture.  A good indication of this being a problem is when you see sporting event clocks and scores that are only partially displayed.  

 

PAL - Is an abbreviation for Phase Alternation by Line.  This is one of the common alternative video standards that is used in Australia and Europe.  

 

PCM - Pulse-code modulation (PCM) is a method used to digitally represent sampled analog signals. It is the standard form of digital audio in computers, Compact Discs, digital telephony and other digital audio applications. In a PCM stream, the amplitude of the analog signal is sampled regularly at uniform intervals, and each sample is quantized to the nearest value within a range of digital steps. (see LPCM)

 

Plasma Display - Is a display that uses an electrically excited gas that glows to display an image.

 

Primary Color - Is one of three colors used to display an image.  The primary colors of light are red, green and blue.  This combination of colors can create a very wide range of colors including white.  

 

Polarizer - Is a light filter used in an LCD projection system.  LCD blocks polarized light which the polarizer filters so that it will work.  

Posturization - Is an artifact found in some displays.  When a scene has changes in intensity that should appear smooth, but instead appear as obvious steps is posturization.  

 

PQ - Is an abbreviation for picture quality typically found in use on the internet.  

 

Progressive Display - This type of display refreshes the entire image at once.  This is typically once every 60 seconds for USA video.  This is the preferred display type for viewing film images and is generally considered superior to interlaced for all image types.  

 

PVR - Is an abbreviation for personal video recorder.  These are a convenient way of time shifting your TV viewing.  They record the video to a hard disk like a computer.  Many cable systems offer this option and all satellite systems offer this option.  

 

 Rainbows - Is an artifact that can be caused by the use of a color wheel.  Rainbows commonly appear as a momentary burst of color when it should not be present.  This is easiest to see when an image is has very bright objects on a black background.  

RCA Connector - Is the most common type of connection used for video and audio.  This type of connector does not have the best performance, but it can be very good.  

Red Push - A color decoder that is set incorrectly to emphasize red in the picture.  

Rec 709ITU-R Recommendation BT.709, more commonly known by the abbreviations Rec. 709 or BT.709, standardizes the format of high-definition television, having 16:9 (widescreenaspect ratio. The first edition of the standard was approved in 1990.

Rec 2020 - ITU-R Recommendation BT.2020, more commonly known by the abbreviations Rec. 2020 or BT.2020, defines various aspects of UHDTV such as display resolutionframe ratechroma subsamplingbit depth, and color space. It was posted on the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) website on August 23, 2012

RF Video - Is how analog cable and analog OTA is distributed.  

RGB - Is a method used to encode a video data.  RGB and component are the most common encoding systems used in consumer video.  All current consumer devices convert the incoming video to RGB for final display.  

RPTV - Is an abbreviation for rear projection television.  This type of television uses a mirror in the back of it and a lens system to project the image onto a transparent screen facing the viewer.  This type of display can use DLP, LCD, LCoS or CRT technology.  


Saturation – one of the 3 dimensions of color. Saturation is the colorfulness of color independent of its brightness. It’s the redness of the red. An under-saturated red looks washed-out, whereas a over-satured red appears deep crimson. Saturation is depicted on the CIE chart by the distance of the color from the reference white point at the center of the triangle. As saturation changes, a color moves closer to or further away from the white point.

S-Video -Is a single cable used to carry an analog video signal.  This type of connection can be superior to composite video, but it depends on the comb filter found in the source versus the display.  The electrical properties of this connector and cable are not quite as good as those used for composite video.

Scalar - Is a device that is used to change the resolution of a source (DVD, HD Tuner...) to match that of a display.  These are usually inside of the display, but high quality ones can also be separate.  

SCART - Is an abbreviation for Syndicat des Constructeurs d'Appareils Radiorécepteurs et Téléviseurs.  This is a video connection found in Europe.

SD - Is an abbreviation for standard definition typically found in use on the internet.  

Service Mode or Service Menu - Is a hidden mode found in most video devices that is used by technicians to improve the picture quality.  

SDE - Is an abbreviation for screen door effect.  This is an artifact that makes it look like you are looking through a screen door.  This is caused by the pixels being surrounded by a grid.  LCD has this worse than any other technology.  The problem is more evident the closer you set to the screen or the larger the picture is.

SDI - Is a single video cable that is used to carry a digital video signal.  This type of connection is normally found on commercial equipment, but is sometimes used with modified DVD players and external scalars.  

SECAM - Is an abbreviation for Systeme Electronique Couleur Avec Memoire.  This is the French video standard.

Signal Generator - Is a device that is used to generate test images for display calibration.  These devices are useful in calibrating a display to industry standards.  

Sharpness - Is a user menu adjustment that determines how edgy the picture looks.  Proper sharpness will result in a smooth transition from dark to white with no ringing.  This frequently requires service mode adjustment to remove edge enhancements.  

SMPTE - Is an abbreviation for The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers.  This organization sets many of the standards associated with film production.  

Spatial Dithering - Is a method of rendering the appearance of a smooth image on a display with a device that is only binary.  DLP uses this method to draw an image on the screen.  

S/PDIF - Sony/Philips Digital Interface Format is a type of digital audio interconnect used in consumer audio equipment to output audio over reasonably short distances. The signal is transmitted over either a coaxial cable with RCA connectors or a fiber optic cable with TOSLINK connectors. S/PDIF interconnects components in home theatres and other digital high fidelity systems.

S/PDIF is based on the professional AES3 interconnect standard. S/PDIF can carry two channels of uncompressed PCM audio or compressed 5.1/7.1 surround sound (such as DTS audio codec); it cannot support lossless formats (such as Dolby TrueHD and DTS-HD Master Audio) which require greater bandwidth like that available with HDMI orDisplayPort.

 Spectroradiometer - A device that measures the color of light by dividing it into many wavelength segments.  This is the most accurate way to measure color.  

Standard HDMI Cable - A Standard HDMI cable is one that is tested to performance standards that satisfy the requirements of most consumers. It is performance tested to 74.5 MHz, and can reliably transmit a 1080i or 720p signal up to 15 meters. Standard HDMI Cables are referred to as Category 1 cables in the HDMI specification. (See also: High Speed HDMI Cable) .

Standard HDMI Cable with Ethernet - A Standard HDMI Cable that also supports HDMI Ethernet Channel functionality, providing a channel for a 100 MB/sec Ethernet link between connected devices.

Standard HDMI Connector - The 19-pin plug that is currently used in most HDMI-enabled products. The Standard HDMI Connector is referred to as the Type A HDMI Connector in the HDMI specification. See also Mini HDMI Connector.

STB - Is an abbreviation for set top box.  This covers a broad range of products that convert a broadcast, cable or satellite signal to one that your display device can use.  

SXRD - Is an abbreviation for Silicon Crystal (X-tal) Reflective Display which is Sony's proprietary LCoS technology.


Tint – A control in the user menu. Tint is the intensity of blue in secondary colors of magenta and cyan.  When set correctly the intensity of blue in cyan and in magenta is identical.  

Tristimulus – A device that measures the color of light by reading the primary wavelength segments. This type of meter is fast reading, especially at low signal levels. A popular, fast and accurate method of video calibration is to profile a spectroradiometer (reference) meter to a tristimulus (target) meter before starting a calibration.  The permits the accuracy of the spectroradiometer and the speed of the tristimulus meter to be each used to their advantage; resulting in a fast and accurate calibration.

TMDS - Transition Modulated Differential Signaling, a technology for transmitting serial data at very high speeds. TMDS is a core technology used in both DVI and HDMI.

TOSLINK - A fiber-optic cable that transmits digital audio using the S/PDIF interface format.

Type A HDMI Connector - See Standard HDMI Connector.

Type C HDMI Connector - See Mini HDMI Connector.

UHDTV - Ultra-high-definition television (also known as Super Hi-VisionUltra HD televisionUltraHDUHDTV, or UHD) includes 4K UHD (2160p) and 8K UHD(4320p), which are two digital video formats defined and approved by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU).

The Consumer Electronics Association announced on October 17, 2012, that "Ultra High Definition", or "Ultra HD", would be used for displays that have an aspect ratio of 16:9 and at least one digital input capable of carrying and presenting native video at a minimum resolution of 3840×2160 pixels.

UHDTV also allows other image enhancements in dynamic range and color, which can improve the perceived difference between 4KTV and HDTV. UHDTV allows the future use of the new Rec. 2020 (UHDTV) color space which can reproduce colors that cannot be shown with the current Rec. 709 (HDTV and 2015ish 4KTV) color space.[8] When dealing with CIE 1931 color space coverage, the Rec. 2020 color space covers 75.8%, whereas the digital cinema reference projector color space covers 53.6%, the Adobe RGB color space covers 52.1%, and the Rec. 709 color space covers 35.9%.[8] UHDTV also allows for an increase in dynamic range, meaning brighter highlights but also increased detail in the greyscale. UHDTV also allows for frame rates up to 120 frames per second (fps)

 

Ultra HD Alliance certification logo program’s minimum technical standards are: UHD resolution (3840x2160), 10-bit color depth from input to screen, wide color gamut minimum 90% of Digital Cinema P3 color space, able to display high dynamic range content mastered to SMPTE 2084 (HDR10) gamma curve with specific minimum black level & peak whit targets- either 1,000 nits brightness against 0.05 nits black level (LED driven LCDs) or 540 nits brightness against 0.0005 nits black level (OLED). Edit 3/15/16

User Menu - Is the menu that you can access with your remote to adjust the setup of your display.  

VGA - Is a single cable that is used to carry an analog video signal.  This type of connection is capable of carrying the complete resolution of HDTV and NTSC.  It is typically used for connection with a computer.


sYCC601 - A Color Space used primarily in digital photography applications.

VESA - The Video Electronics Standards Association. The industry group responsible for the EDID standard and other technical specifications.

 

x.v.Color - A new standard for an expanded, “wider” color space or gamut, enabled by HDMI 1.3 and being developed by Sony and Mitsubishi, among others. The xv color space (also known as xvYCC color) incorporates a much larger portion of the visible color spectrum than the older RGB color model.

 

xvYCC Color - The original acronym the color model now known as x.v.Color.

 

YCbCr Color - A family of color spaces, used in some HD applications, where color is expressed using a luma component plus red and blue chroma components, rather than by describing absolute color values, as in the RGB color model. Also known as YPbPr color.

 

 

end tv calibration glossary 

Below CIE graph shows the examples of the 'just noticable differences' which are perceptiable to the human eye/brain.